WORLD OCEAN - LAST RESERVE OF HUMANITY
The questions of control over the mineral resources of the Earth as one of the most important components of the geopolitical aspirations of the countries of the "golden billion", led by the US. It is noted that the world's oceans - the last reserve of humanity, has kolosalnoe volumes of hydrocarbons and solid minerals (TPI). It is emphasized that the mineral - raw material security of Russia is the basis of national security. The most interesting from the standpoint of possibility of industrial development are mineral resources of the seabed - the shelf zone, the continental slope and ocean floor. In 1982, adopted the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, it came into effect in 1984 and, according to her marine mineral resources are the common heritage of mankind. However, this applies only to those fields, which lie outside of the continental shelf belonging to specific states. The Convention defined in the World Ocean Region 2:
- Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) - a 200-mile sea lane along the coast of the country, within which this state has all the rights for exploration, production, storage and disposal of natural resources and the seabed;
- The international seabed area, within which the activities and the development of its resources is universal and is regulated by the International Committee (body) on the seabed (the ISA - ISA).
The data on the basic fields of oil, natural gas, deep-sea polymetallic sulfides, ferromanganese nodules and cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts. The conclusion about the need to create in the Russian sea mining.
About the AuthorsA. S. Kashirsky
125009, Moscow, Degtyarny pereulok, 9
Y. V. Kirichenko
Dr. Sci. (Tech.). Professor of the department of geology.
119991, Moscow, Leninsky Prospect, 4
1. Ocenka vozmozhnosti vovlechenija zhelezo-margancevyh mestorozhdenij morskogo dna v razrabotku. Ch. I. Mineral'no-syr'evye resursy Mirovogo okeana. [Assessment of the possibility of involving iron-manganese deposits of the seabed in development. Part I. Mineral resources of the World Ocean.] M. Galperin, Yu.V. Kirichenko, M.V. Shchekina et al. – Moscow: GIAB. – 2014. – No. 5. – Pp. 134-142. In Russian.
2. Kirichenko Ju.V., Shhjokina M.V. Osvoenie resursov Mirovogo okeana – osnova nacional'noj bezopasnosti Rossii (sovremennoe sostojanie i puti reshenija) [The development of the resources of the World Ocean is the basis of the national security of Russia (the current state and solutions)]. Sat. Doc. VI Congress of Hydromechanisers of Russia. Moscow: Publishing House of the Center for Innovative Technologies, 2012. – Pp.101-110. In Russian.
3. Kozlovskij E.A., Maljutin Ju.S. Mirovoj okean kak rezerv mineral'nogo syr'ja v XXI veke [The World Ocean as a reserve of mineral raw materials in the XXI century]. World mining 2004-2005. – T. 1. – Pp. 165-179. In Russian.
4. Kozlovskij E.A., Maljutin Ju.S. Mirovoj okean kak rezerv mineral'nogo syr'ja v XXI veke.[The world ocean as a reserve of mineral raw materials in the 21st century]. Moscow: Nature-resource lists. – 2005. – No. 3-4. – Pp. 12-18. In Russian.
5. Kompleksnoe osvoenie nedr: Perspektivy rasshirenija mineral'no-syr'evoj bazy Rossii [Integrated development of mineral resources: Prospects for expanding the mineral and raw materials base of Russia]. Ed. K.N. Trubetskoy, V.A. Chanturia, D.R. Kaplunova. – Moscow: 2009. – 496 p. In Russian.
6. Materials for the joint meeting of the Committee of the State Duma of the Russian Federation on Natural Resources, Nature Management and Ecology and the Higher Mountain Council April 23, 2015 – Moscow: The State Duma. – 40 p. In Russian.
7. Mero J. Mineral'nye bogatstva okeana [Mineral wealth of the ocean]. – Moscow: Progress, 1969. – 440 p. In Russian.
8. Tehnologija dobychi poleznyh iskopaemyh so dna ozer, morej i okeanov [Technology extraction of minerals from the bottom of lakes, seas and oceans]. Under total. Ed. V.V. Rzhevsky and G.A. Nurok. – Moscow: Nedra, 1979. – 381 p.
9. Kirichenko U.V., Kashirsky A.S. Development of underwater fields of firm minerals for a solution of the problem of deficiency of the mineral raw materials. I scientific Reports on Resource Issues 2014, vol.1, innovations in Mineral Resource Value Chains. – 2014, supported by the IVR Partner Universities. – Pp. 239-247.
10. Geochemistry of buried miocene - plestocene ferromanganese nodules from the Antarctic ocean. F. Aumento and J.M. MacGillivray, Department of Geology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. – Pp.795-803.
11. Andreev S.I., Goleva R.V., Jubko V.M. Jekonomicheskie i geopoliticheskie aspekty problemy osvoenija mineral'nyh resursov Mirovogo okeana [Economic and geopolitical aspects of the problem of developing the mineral resources of the World Ocean]. Mineral Resources of Russia. Economics and Management. – 2006. – No. 3. – P. 72-78. In Russian.
12. Francheteau J., Needham H.D., Choukroune P. et al. Nature. 1969. V. 277. No. 5697. – Рp. 523-528.
13. Kenneth J. Morskaja geologija [Marine Geology]. – Moscow: Mir, 1987. – T. 1. – 397 p. In Russian.
14. Murray J., Renard A.F. Report on Deep-Sea Deposits Based on the Specimens Collected during the Voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger in the Years 1872–1876, in Challenger Reports, London Government Printer, 1891. – 525 p.
15. Aumento F., MacGillivray J.M. Geochemistry of buried miocene-plestocene ferromanganese nodules from the Antarctic ocean. – Washington.: US. Govt. Printing Office. – 1975. – Pp. 795-803.
16. Hashimoto I., Ohta S., Fiaba-Medioni A. et al. Hidrothermal vent commuitis in the Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea: Results of the BIOACCESS cruises ’96 and ‘98” // Inter Ridge News. – 1999. – Vol. 8(2). – Pp. 12-18.
17. Gromet L.P., Dymek R.F., Haskin L.A., Korotev R.L. // Geochim. Et cosmochim. Acta. –1984. – V. 48. –№ 12. – Pp. 2469-2482.
18. Xavier A. Sedimentologische und steukturelle Untersuchungen zur Genese der marinen Eisen-Mangan-Akkretionen (“Mangan-Knollen”), Seckenbergina marit, 1976, 8, No 4/6. – Pp. 271-309.
19. Addy S.K. Distribution of the Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Co in coexisting manganese nodules and micronodules, Marine geology, 1978, 28, M9-M19.
20. Timothy Green. The World of Diamonds. London. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1981. – 376 p.
For citation: Kashirsky A.S., Kirichenko Y.V. WORLD OCEAN - LAST RESERVE OF HUMANITY. Gornye nauki i tekhnologii = Mining Science and Technology (Russia). 2017;(1):67-76. https://doi.org/10.17073/2500-0632-2017-1-67-74
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.