Gornye nauki i tekhnologii = Mining Science and Technology (Russia)

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Vol 7, No 3 (2022)
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192-202 286

The use of modern computer aided methods, in particular the use of the Micromine software, is an important part of the integrated research for the determination of deposit prospects for various ores. The paper is devoted to the analysis of prospects and estimation of reserves for open-pit and underground mining in the Berezkinskoye ore field. For this purpose, silver reserves were determined as the principal valuable component. The deposit balance reserves were estimated separately for all types of ores in the optimal open pit envelope adopted in the final mining feasibility study (FS of permanent exploration conditions for ore extraction). To vectorize and verify the geological information entered into the database, graphical materials in the form of cross-sections and plans with the corresponding borehole database were georeferenced using the Micromine software. The final inspection was carried out to ensure that the sample depth information entered was consistent with the excavation depth. The database contains information on the location of boreholes and trenches, the design of boreholes, the spatial positioning of the boreholes/trenches axes, the data of sample assays for silver and copper. For underground mining, the delineation of ore bodies was carried out based on the cross-sections identified in the boreholes at a cut-off grade of 10.7 g/t, taking into account the orientation of geological structures. Reliability of the ore bodies delineation was verified in a Micromine three-dimensional model. For open-pit mining, the position of small ore bodies may be clarified by operational exploration with possible subsequent upgrading their reserve categories. The wireframe model of ore zones and bodies was constructed using the outlines obtained by the developed methodology. A wireframe model of faults was based on the Berezkinsky area plans and cross-sections. The construction of the fault wireframe model was performed in several steps. Application of modern geoinformation system (GIS) technologies makes it possible to qualitatively assess the prospects and estimate the reserves at the deposits. The Berezkinskoye deposit ore material composition, metallurgical properties, hydrogeological and geotechnical features were investigated.


203-215 233

The long-term development of the mining industry in the Komsomolsky, Kavalerovsky and Dalnegorsky districts of the Far East of Russia caused origination of large-scale mining technogenic systems. During the period of socalled “perestroika”, mining production in the region was suspended, while mine workings (pits, adits) and tailings dumps were not subjected to any kind of preservation or reclamation. Only the boron and lead-zinc mining sectors in the Dalnegorsk district are currently in operation. The purpose of this paper is to assess the composition of mine waters, reveal the conditions of their formation, the presence of various aqueous species (coordination compounds and ions) of different elements and establish the parameters of precipitation of a number of hypergenic natural and technogenic minerals from these waters. This paper provides the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters in the mining technogenic systems of tin-sulfide, copper-tin, tin-polymetallic, and polymetallic deposits, indicates the conditions of their formation and describes the adverse impact on the hydrosphere, as well as on human health in these districts. The studies of sulfide oxidation and mine water formation processes were carried out by the method of physicochemical simulation involving the use of the Selektor software package. The Eh–pH parameters of solutions, their composition with respect to stable aqueous species (complex compounds and simple ions), paragenetic associations (paragenesis) of precipitating hypergenic minerals with respect to the primary composition of ores and host rocks were established in a wide temperature range (from −25 to +45 °С). It has been established that the simulated micropore solutions participating in the formation of mine waters exhibit a wide range of Eh–pH parameters: Eh from 0.55 to 1.24 V and pH from 0.3 to 13.8. The technogenic minerals Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Sb belonging to oxide and hydroxide, sulphate, and arsenate classes are precipitated from them. Mine waters of high concentration, prior to and after the precipitation of technogenic minerals (weight of which reaches the hundreds of grams), are released into the hydrosphere. The simulated solutions contain all the elements of sulfide ores: Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe, Ag, As, Sb and S, whereas their concentrations in the form of aqueous species reach the tens of grams, while under cryogenic conditions the concentrations are by one or two orders of magnitude higher as a result of ice formation. The forms of migration of the elements depend on the temperature conditions. The negative impact of mine waters on the region hydrosphere and human health was demonstrated. In the districts under consideration, obvious trend of increasing morbidity (for almost all types of diseases) by 2 times both in adults and in children as compared to other Far Eastern regions was revealed. In addition, the morbidity of the child population for almost all the diseases under consideration proved much higher than in adults.

216-230 200

This study is relevant for obtaining the first geochemical data (including information on radionuclides) on the drainage waters of developed and flooded quarries in the eastern areas of the Novosibirsk Region. The objective of the study was to identify the features of the chemical composition of drainage waters (a wide range of chemical elements from Li to U). The study was carried out by titrimetry, ion chromatography and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma in a laboratory setting at the Hydrogeochemical Problem Research Laboratory (PNIL GGH) of the Engineering School of Natural Resources of Tomsk Polytechnic University (IShPR TPU). Measurements of 222Rn in waters were carried out at the Alfarad Plus facility of the Laboratory of Siberian Sedimentary Basins Hydrogeology of the A. A. Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INGG SB RAS). The data were divided into homogeneous geochemical populations using the coefficients Ca / Na, Ca/ Mg, Ca / Si, Mg/ Si, Na / Si. The chemical composition of the studied objects was found to be highly diverse. The dominant waters have the chemical formula SO4-HCO3 / Na-Mg-Ca with a TDS (total dissolved solids) of 400 to 700 mg/dm3. Three geochemical groups of waters were identified. The first is represented by drainage waters of the developed rubble stone quarries, the second includes facilities of the Gorlovka coal basin, and the third refers to abandoned flooded quarries. The first group is characterized by oxidizing conditions with Eh varying over a wide range from +84.6 to +261.0 mV, pH from 6.9 to 8.6, and O2dissoived from 3.43 to 14.39 mg/dm3. The radionuclide concentrations are (mg/dm3): 238U 9.30 • 10-3 - 1,40; 232Th 1,00 • 10-6 - 2,16 • 10-3; 222Rn activity varies from 1 to 572.5 Bq/dm3. The 232Th / 238U ratio ranges from 4.20 • 10-5 to 2.69 • 10-3 with an average of 8.40 • 10-4. The second group has a smaller Eh variation range of +133.2 to +199.6 mV, pH from 7.5 to 8.5, and O2dissolved from 6.81 to 10.43 mg/dm3. The radionuclide concentrations vary in the following ranges (mg/dm3): 238U 2.26 • 10-3 - 2.90 • 10-2; 232Th 7.5 • 10-6 - 5.57 • 10-4. The 232Th / 238U ratio ranges from 8.37 • 10-4 to 4.80 • 10-2 at an average of 9.54 • 10-3. The third group is also characterized by an oxidizingizing geochemical environment with Eh +131.3 - +250.0 mV, pH from 6.9 to 8.8 and O2dissolved from 4.00 to 16.59 mg/dm3. The radionuclide concentrations are (mg/dm3): 238U 3.00 • 10-4 - 2.74 • 10-2; 232Th 1.65 • 10-6 - 1.15 • 10-5; 222Rn activity varies from 2 to 31 Bq/dm3. The 232Th/ 238U ratio ranges from 2.36 • 10-4 to 1.02 • 10-3 at an average of 6.25 • 10-4. Overall, the 232Th / 238U ratio of the studied waters indicates their uranium nature of radioactivity. The data obtained indicate a slight impact of the drainage water discharge from the abandoned quarries on the environment.



231-239 217

An offset of roller cone rotation centerlines is used to increase the mechanical penetration rate while drilling in soft rocks. This enables increasing the area of a cutting structure teeth contact with a bottom hole. The analysis of offset cone drill bit (cutting structure) teeth wear showed that particularly significant wear is characteristic of the transition zone from the heel cone to the nose cone; which leads to significant reduction in the mechanical rate of penetration and a rapid decrease in the hole diameter. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a theoretical research on the nature and conditions of interaction between heel and peripheral nose cones of offset roller cone bits with a bottom hole; which is aimed at improving the efficiency of rock cutting by offset roller cone bits. To achieve the purpose; the authors analyzed data on the nature and causes of wear of existing offset roller cone bit cutting structure (teeth); developed a mathematical model in a cylindrical coordinate system allowing to determine the location and geometric parameters of the gage cone contact area with the hole wall for different roller cone bits sizes; developed a computer solid model for checking the adequacy of the mathematical model by comparing these two models; prepared recommendations for further improvement of the design of existing offset roller cone bit cutting structure (teeth). The research was carried out by the method of mathematical simulation of geometric figures and bodies corresponding to roller cones and a hole. The research has revealed that significant adjustments need to be made to the geometry of the roller cone teeth (currently being patented). This would allow decreasing the areas of cone heel blunting by 15–20 % as well as providing more prolonged contact of base and gage cones with bottom hole and wall surfaces. This allows to reduce wear of teeth in the transition zone of the generatrix from the peripheral nose cone to the gage (heel) cone of the roller cone and to maintain the required specific pressure on the cut rock for a longer period of time and; as a result; to increase both the mechanical penetration rate and the service life of the drilling tools.


240-259 540

Personnel training for the mineral resources sector in Russia has always been one of the most relevant topics for discussion in academic and professional mining community, including the international context. Experts from many countries regularly present their research on the state and achievements of higher education in mining in the national training systems for mining engineers. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and quantify the system of training for mining engineers in Russia. To assess the quantitative characteristics of the training of mining engineers in Russia, the research used methods of analysis based on the objective data of state statistics on the graduation of mining engineers in all universities, as well as admission to the corresponding professions and training programs. Thus, 5,031 mining engineers were trained in Russia in the specialties “Applied Geology”; “Geological Exploration”; “Mining”; “Physical Processes of Mining and Oil and Gas Production” in 2021. 10,789 bachelors and masters were trained under oil and gas directions of training. The results of the analysis are presented in the paper in the context of particular universities, specializations and directions of training of Federal Districts and the country as a whole. The quantitative parameters of personnel training for the mineral resource sector at Russian universities indicate the opportunity for the formation of human resources potential within the higher education system of the industry exclusively at the expense of their own academic schools.

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