Gornye nauki i tekhnologii = Mining Science and Technology (Russia)

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Vol 6, No 3 (2021)
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158-169 679

Analysis of exploration materials and market conditions showed that by-product recovery of rhenium, one of the rarest strategic elements of the periodic system, was not always effective in processing the whole volume of pregnant uranium-bearing solutions. The main goal of the research was to develop an effective method for recovery rhenium from pregnant solutions in in-situ uranium leaching. The objectives of the research were as follows: evaluation of the possibility of selective-and-advanced recovery of rhenium from ores by in-situ leaching method and comparison of the technological advantages of the new proposed method with the known ones. The study involved the analysis of historical geological, mineralogical and geochemical information on the Dobrovolnoye deposit and analysis of technological aspects of by-product recovery of rhenium in the world practice. A selective-and-advanced scheme of rhenium recovery from pregnant uranium-bearing sulfate (sulfuric acid) solutions of the Dobrovolnoye deposit ISL (Russia) using mobile installations was proposed. The process has the following features: zoning of production blocks when constructing injection and extraction (pumping) wells; piping of selective extraction wells into a separate collecting pipe; implementation of advanced rhenium sorption. The process implementation makes it possible to obtain rhenium from economically viable areas of the uranium deposit. The mobile installation includes the following main units: a filter for purification (aftertreatment) to remove suspension, a chain of sorption apparatuses (sorption filters or columns), connecting fittings, control and measuring instruments. The sorption apparatuses are filled with rhenium-selective ionite (ion exchanger). As a selective sorbent for the primary concentration of rhenium from sulfate solutions (pH 2), weakly basic nitrogen-bearing ionites containing amine functional groups of various types can be used. If further concentration of rhenium is required, in order to unify the equipment used, materials with a mobile extractant phase (so-called TVEXs (solid extractants or Levextrel resins in English literature) and so-called “impregnated” or “impregnates”), such as TVEX-DIDA containing diisododecyl amine, or TAA-impregnate containing trialkylamine, can be used. Rhenium desorption from these materials is carried out by an ammonia solution, which allows producing rough ammonium perrhenate from the eluate. Economic aspects of the rhenium selective-andadvanced technology were evaluated. Implementation of the recovery selective-and-advanced technology allows obtaining rhenium from economically-viable areas of the uranium deposit.

170-180 293

The main reason of decreasing diamond recovery through froth separation is their surface hydrophilization by hypergene minerals and technogenic films, crystallized from the supersaturated aqueous phase, fixed on the surface structurally or by adhesion. Various types of physical actions, including thermal and ultrasonic treatment of the initial feed of froth separation, are recommended to increase the diamond-bearing kimberlite beneficiation process performance, providing cleaning of the surface of diamonds due to destruction of their accretions with rock minerals and removal of film hydrophilizing coatings from the surface of diamond crystals. A sample of kimberlite material with a given content of diamonds of 1.5–2 mm in size was used as a subject of research in the process of froth separation. The results of thermodynamic calculations and experimental research have substantiated the necessity of using electrochemical conditioning of recycled water for increasing the efficiency of diamond surface cleaning in froth separation operation when using the process of thermal treatment of initial ore feed. The use of diaphragmless electrochemical conditioning of recycled water increases the efficiency of thermochemical dissolution of hydrophilizing compounds on the surface of diamonds through reducing the concentration of calcium and carbonate ions as well as through shifting the medium pH to 6.1–6.5. The measurements of the limiting wetting angle showed that the maximum effect of increasing the diamond surface hydrophobicity was achieved when heat and electrochemical treatment were used together. Laboratory studies showed the possibility of increasing flotation diamond extraction from 65.7 to 91.4 % through application of electrochemical conditioning of recycled water. The optimum parameters of diaphragmless electrochemical treatment of recycled water of the froth separation cycle in conditions of application of pulp heat treatment: current density of 175–200 A/m2 and power consumption of 1.2–1.5 kWh/m3. Tests carried out at processing plant No. 3 of the Mirny GOK (Mining and Processing Complex) (Mirny, Yakutiya) showed that the application of the developed froth separation process intensification method with the use of thermal treatment of pulp and electrochemical diaphragmless treatment of recycled water allowed increasing the recovery of diamonds of +0.5–2 mm size by 4.9–5.1 %.


181-191 381

Cassiterite-sulfide and polymetallic deposits of the Far Eastern Region (FER) were mined by both openpit and underground methods. This resulted in the emerging numerous mine workings and tailings storage facilities (TSFs) (abandoned without reclamation in latest decades) and the formation of mining technogenic mineralogical systems. Sulfide component of minerals in the mining technogenic system is subjected to hypergenic and technogenic processes (oxidation and hydrolysis reactions). As a result, highly concentrated technogenic solutions are formed, from which minerals of various classes precipitate. In this connection the purpose of this study was formulated as follows: to show the possibility of crystallization of technogenic minerals from micropore technogenic solutions. In achieving this goal the following tasks were solved: to demonstrate the possible reactions of oxidation and hydrolysis of technogenic minerals at the tailings storage facilities; to identify Eh-pH parameters of their precipitation from highly concentrated solutions; to determine their possible associations. The studies involved field observations and computations with the use of “Selector” software package. The study findings allow demonstrating possible chemical reactions and physico-chemical conditions of mineral formation for the following elements: Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Sb, Mg, Al, and Ca, including the following classes of minerals: oxides and hydroxides, sulfates, carbonates, arsenates and silicates. The paper presented for the first time the crystallization reactions of secondary minerals (37 ones) and their physico-chemical conditions. It was found that secondary minerals: jarosite, pitticite, siderite, tenorite, poznyakite, antlerite and ktenasite crystallize in the interval of positive temperatures, while scorodite, chalcantite, broshantite, cerussite, starkeyite, epsomite and rostite originate in cryogenic conditions (below 0 oC). All other minerals, the possibility of precipitation of which was shown in the paper, crystallized in the whole considered temperature interval, from −25 oС to +45 oС. Field studies and modeling data on formation of technogenic waters (solutions) and crystallization of secondary minerals on the surface of and inside tailings at the tailings storage facilities of the Far East showed high intensity of technogenic processes. Since the tailings storage facilities were not reclaimed, the process of environmental pollution, including the hydrosphere, would last for many decades.


192-202 227

Artificial freezing ensures the formation of a temporary ice wall around the shaft under construction, which prevents groundwater penetration into the shaft and increases the strength of rocks around the unsupported walls of the shaft until the permanent support is erected. The purpose of the study is to carry out thermotechnical calculation of ice wall with subsequent theoretical analysis of changing ice wall thickness with shifting to the passive freezing stage. The idea of the study is to determine these technological parameters based on the condition of maintaining the design ice wall thickness at the stage of passive freezing. The methodology and results of thermotechnical calculation of ice wall for the clay layer as applied to the case of the shafts under construction of a potash mine in the Republic of Belarus are presented. The thermal calculation of the ice wall was carried out numerically in the ANSYS software package using the finite element method. The findings of the numerical multiparameter modeling allowed theoretical analysis of ice wall thickness decrease with shifting to the passive freezing stage with higher brine temperature. The decrease in ice wall thickness was studied both during normal operation of the freezing station and at emergency operation mode caused by the failure of one of the freezing columns. Special attention in the analysis was paid to studying the influence of the duration of the active freezing stage and the distance between the columns on the decrease in the ice wall thickness. When analyzing changes in ice wall thickness at different distances between the freezing columns, it was found that the most common column spacing in the range from 1.1 to 1.3 m requires observing restrictions on the duration of active freezing to prevent a critical decrease in ice wall thickness during the passive freezing stage or decreasing the distance between the freezing columns. In this case, preservation of positive dynamics of ice wall thickness growth is ensured. For the clay layer considered in the study and the distance between the columns from 1.1 to 1.3 m, the minimum time of active freezing is also about 4.3 months. As a result of the analysis, the technological parameters of the freezing system (duration of the active freezing stage and the distance between the freezing columns) were determined, at which the ice wall thickness at the passive freezing stage did not become lower than the minimum permissible values calculated based on the strength and creep conditions.


203-210 390

Underground mining operations are connected with significant risks of technogenic accidents, which can be catastrophic. Mitigating the consequences of such phenomena directly depends on the reliability and efficiency of information about the state of parameters of many technological processes, mine workings and facilities located in them. At failure of standard systems of industrial telemetry in conditions of underground mining the creation of new information channels and places of information measurementbecomes practically impossible in case of emergency situation development. This predetermines necessity of use of essentially new systems of gathering and transfer of the information, based on robotized autonomous complexes. The task of acquiring reliable information about the situation in an emergency mine working with the help of drones (unmanned aerial vehicles or UAV) in order to make rational decisions in the course of the rescue operation is quite relevant. The aim of the paper was to develop a system of automatic control of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) movement in confined space of a mine working, with significant perturbations of the mine air flow. The mathematical model of UAV movement in mine conditions, based on Euler angles or quaternions, was substantiated. The method of positioning through triangulation with the use of radio beacons was accepted as the basic method that allowed to determine the current position of an UAV. It was proposed to solve the problem of creation of the automatic system for an unmanned aerial vehicle movement control with the use of a hierarchical multiloop control system. The route planning algorithm was formed on the basis of the Dijkstra algorithm. For this purpose, discretization of the future motion space was performed, a labeled connected graph was constructed, on which the arc weights were the distances between the route points. A simulation experiment was implemented. The average deviation from the planned trajectory when flying at a speed of 10 m/s with payload mass up to 0.6 kg did not exceed 1 m, and the maximum deviation was unacceptably large. When flying at 6 m/s with payload mass up to 0.6 kg the average deviation did not exceed 0.3 m, and the maximum deviation, 1.2 m. The results of simulation of movement along the route towards the disturbing mine airflow showed that the control system allowed the UAV with payload of 0.6 kg to withstand the oncoming flow up to 8 m/s. It was obtained that with payload mass of 0.6 kg, the braking distance does not exceed 6 m if the UAV had a speed of 6 m/s, and the braking distance does not exceed 12 m at the speed of 10 m/s. The performed simulation studies confirmed the operating capability of the developed system for automatic motion control.

211-220 276

Development of new deposits and modernization of existing mining enterprises in order to improve their efficiency are the priorities for the development of tungsten-molybdenum resource sector. In the modernization of mining productions, attention is paid to all technological processes and engineering systems, transformation of which should be aimed at improving economic performance, including reliability. Research of power supply systems of mining enterprises and modes of their operation is an urgent task, as this type of engineering support of mining works, auxiliary processes and facilities determines competitiveness of an enterprise as a whole. In the course of research, an assessment of operational reliability of power supply of developing ore mining areas at a high-altitude mine of the Tyrnyauz deposit (Kabardino-Balkaria) was performed. It was found that under the existing scheme of separate power supply of 6 kV networks from substations, the full ground fault currents for these networks are respectively: I030=17.5 A and I0116 =12.2 A and reach the limiting values at which it was possible to disconnect them by disconnectors (the limiting current was 20 A). A formula for total ground fault current in 6 kV underground networks was recommended. It was shown that reliability of power supply in the above mine, as well as the level of danger of electric shock in electrical installations depended largely on the number of singlephase ground faults. On the basis of the theoretical and experimental research, the solutions to improve the operation of electrical networks, taking into account the structure and modes of operation of a highaltitude mine were developed.


221-228 649

Today, in the times of economic uncertainty and unpredictability, it is important to respond to new challenges in a timely manner, using relevant tools to make effective management decisions. In the world practice, one of such tools for effective management of an industrial enterprise project is PEST-analysis, the functionality of which is considered in this paper. The study purpose is to conduct PEST-analysis, review and analyze the factors affecting the development of the Nivensky GOK (Mining and Concentration Complex), located in the Kaliningrad region – an export-oriented investment project to build a new industrial enterprise with core production of a premium mineral fertilizer, potassium sulfate. Based on the analysis, the paper proposes a number of feasible preventive measures for mitigating effects of negative factors, as well as for the development of strengths of the Nivensky GOK’s company-operator, “K-Potash Service” LLC. Thus, PEST-analysis of key micro- and macroeconomic factors allowed to comprehensively assess the position of Nivensky GOK in the emerging mining-and-chemical industry of Kaliningrad region. The study established the degree of influence of other internal and external factors on the company as well, including the possibilities of introducing new innovative techniques in the industrial enterprise operation, trends in the development of the mineral fertilizer market, taking into account the geopolitical context. Conclusions, recommendations and proposals allow evaluating the company and the possibilities of its development for making strategic and long-term decisions on the project development. The main results of the study can be used as effective tools for optimizing development of the new industrial enterprise project, Nivensky GOK.

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ISSN 2500-0632 (Online)